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BOLIVIAN HIDROCARBONS NATIONALIZATION


Héctor Mediavilla

THE BOLIVIAN HIDROCARBONS NATIONALIZATION Probably the most controversial decission of the MAS (Movement Towards Socialism) government of Evo Morales for international investors is the so-called nationalization of hidrocarbons. The supreme decree 28.701 establishes the gas multinationals benefits of18 % so that there will be more resources for the country development. Despite having the second largest gas reserves of Latin America after Venezuela, the Bolivian population often suffers shortages of fuel, gas and kerosene at petrol stations. They also do not get gas distributed in their homes. The inhabitans of most of the territories where gas is extracted do not get fair compensations and many of them live in the limits of poverty. Thus, it is now very important to correctly decide how to distribute the restored wealth to the country among the population and their institutions.


 

Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081003

Margarita X2 gas well from Repsol. This is the only well that is not extracting gas of the 5 that Repsol has in the Itika Guasu territory of the guaranies indians. At the end of 2006 Repsol responsibles and Guaranies captains are negociating for a fair compensation for the original inhabitants of this territory.

Itika Guasu territory, Tarija, Bolivie - 02/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081026

Workers of the Pride company, which is a subcontract of Repsol, arrange some pieces to transport them to Camiri. They are closing the Isiri gas well from Repsol which is not going to be exploited in the near future.

Palos Blancos, Tarija, Bolivie - 03/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081034

Catalina Flores is the mother-in-law of the Guarani Captain Macedonio Vazquez who takes care of a plant nursery. These plants are sold for 25 cents of a euro to the Repsol reforestation company that uses them to reforest the limits of the unpaved road built to get to the gas wells in the Guarani territory where Repsol Campo Margarita is located. She lives with her family in this adobe house with no electricity wire nor gas at home.

Palos Blancos, Santa Cruz, Bolivie - 02/09/2006

autorisation orale uniquement. Only for distribution in France and Belgium.

 

Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081062

Transredes is the company that distributes gas in the Bolilvian territory. There are many pipelines which are not buried so they are a real danger for the local population. Many inhabitants of Nuevo Horizonte community, in the Bulo Bulo - Villa Tunari road, ask the company to do so but they are not taken into consideration.

Comuniad Nuevo Horizonte Km35 / Bulo Bulo, Santa Cruz, Bolivie - 13/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081022

The Guarani Captain Macedonio Vazquez and his family take care of their plant nursery. These plants are sold for 25 cents of a euro to the Repsol reforestation company that uses them to reforest the limits of the unpaved road built to get to the gas wells in the Guarani territory where Repsol Campo Margarita is located. Local, in some cases guarani indians, are hired as work force to reforest the areas that had been destroyed by Repsol when they made wider roads for the use of their vehicles. These workers are usually hired by subcontracts of the Repsol company so they have very low wages and can be dismissed any time.

Itika Guasu territory / Palos Blancos, Santa Cruz, Bolivie - 02/09/2006

Only for distribution in France and Belgium.

 

Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081004

Workers of the Chaco gas company making some conductions from the gas plant. Chaco and Repsol extract gas in the very rich area of the Carrasco province. All nearby populations do not get gas at home through conductions.

Entreríos, Carrasco, Bolivie - 12/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081020

Two young women wash their family clothes at the Isiri river in the Puerto Margarita village. Only guarani families live in this area that historically belongs to them. Despite all the wealth that Repsol gas company is taking from their territory these people do not have electricity or tap water at home and have very few job opportunities.

Puerto Margarita, Tarija, Bolivie - 02/09/2006

 

Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081064

A sign that alerts that a gas pipe line crosses the unpaved road that leads to Villamontes. Petrobras has half a dozen gas wells and many pipe lines in the Weenayek territory. The Weenayek indians live mainly on fishing, honey and cattle. They are negociating compensations with Petrobras for the use of their territory and for the environmental consequences.

Villamontes, Santa Cruz, Bolivie - 06/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081031

A Guarani family that lives in Puerto Margarita. They run a small restaurant that serves fish from the isiri river. Neither them or their neighbours have electricity wire or gas despite being in one of the richest gas territories of Bolivia where Repsol has the Campo Margarita explotaiton. However the APG (Guarani people assambly) are strongly negociating with Repsol in order to get fair compensations for the explotaiton of gas wells in the Guarani territory of Itika Guasu.

Puerto Margarita, Tarija, Bolivie - 02/09/2006

Only for distribution in France and Belgium.

 

Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081037

Macario Segundo is the father-in-law of the Guarani Captain Macedonio Vazquez who takes care of a plant nursery. These plants are sold for 25 cents of a euro to the Repsol reforestation company that uses them to reforest the limits of the unpaved road built to get to the gas wells in the Guarani territory where Repsol Campo Margarita is located. He is eating fish from the Isiri river, they live in poverty with no electricity wire nor gas at home.

Palos Blancos, Santa Cruz, Bolivie - 02/09/2006

autorisation orale uniquement. Only for distribution in France and Belgium.

 

Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081048

The so-called Yacuiba bridge is one of the South gate of Villamontes village. This bridge pases over the Pilcomayo river which has suffered of some oil losses in the last years. The river is becoming more poluted and many people that used to live on fishing like the weenayek indians face a difficult future. The mountain range at the back is the Aguarague "serrania", very rich in gas. San Alberto camp from Repsol is the one with largest gas reserves in Bolivia.

Villamontes, Tarija, Bolivie - 05/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081125

Despite being the second largest gas producer of South America Bolivia still faces problems in the gas supply. Quite often trucks filled with gas coming from Argentina are needed to supply the local population of the South of Bolivia.

Villatunari, Chapare, Bolivie - 06/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081014

Street scene early in the morning in the main avenue of Palos Blancos. This little vilage is the central point of the gas area exploited by Repsol in the Guarani indians Itika Guasu territory. This little village did not have wires electricity until two years ago. Many workers from Repsol subcontracts that build roads or bridges or work at the Repsol plants of Margarita leave Palos Balncos every morning around 5 AM for work in the nearby areas. Palos Blancos citizens believe that it is too little is invested in this village if we think about all the money that gas companies make in this territory.

Palos Blancos, Tarija, Bolivie - 03/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081094

Security guard in La Paloma gas plant of Repsol near Entreríos. This is the largest gas plant in the subtropical region of Bolivia. Security measures are very strict in this area. Security guard in La Paloma gas plant of Repsol near Entrer√≠os. This is the largest gas plant in the subtropical region of Bolivia. Security measures are very strict in this area.

La Paloma gas camp / Isarzama, Carrasco, Bolivie - 12/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081072

Transredes is the company that distributes gas in the Bolilvian territory. There are many pipelines which are not buried so they are a real danger for the local population. Many inhabitants in La Paloma gas camp of Repsol live surrounded by unburied gas pipe lines that transport high pressure gas. This family do the laundry in small river of this land full of gas.

Comuniad Nuevo Horizonte Km41 / Bulo Bulo, Santa Cruz, Bolivie - 13/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081128

Despite being the second largest producer of gas in Latin America Bolivia gas does not get conducted to Bolivian households. There are trucks that deliver every morning small Liquid Gas (GLP) tanks in the streets of La Paz. These tanks are rather dangerous to manipulate but are still use for most of the Bolivian population to cook.

La Paz, La Paz, Bolivie - 20/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081123

Dominga breeds her daughter in their humble home in the Suribi camp area. Two years ago she lost her father and one brother because of a gas explosion that could have been prevented if the control mesures conducted by Repsol would have been more efficient. Her mother is getting from Repsol a brick house next to this one as a compensation for the lost.

Suribi gas camp / Isarzama, Carrasco, Bolivie - 12/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081038

A grandson of the Guarani Captain Macedonio Vazquez plays in his teenager sister's room where there is a poster of Enrique Iglesias. Captain Vazquez takes care of his own plant nursery. These plants are sold for 25 cents of a euro to the Repsol reforestation company that uses them to reforest the limits of the unpaved road built to get to the gas wells in the Guarani territory where Repsol Campo Margarita is located. Local, in some cases guarani indians, are hired as work force to reforest the areas that had been destroyed by Repsol when they made wider roads for the use of their vehicles. These workers are usually hired by subcontracts of the Repsol company so they have very low wages and can be dismissed any time.

Palos Blancos, Santa Cruz, Bolivie - 02/09/2006

Only for distribution in France and Belgium.

 

Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081019

Don César Aguilar, a guarani indian who works for the CERDET NGO that supports the guarani struggle for their rights concerning the explotaition of their territory by gas companies such as Repsol. César looks from the top of a mountain range over the Itika Guasu territory, very rich in gas. There is a Repsol gas well, Campo Margarita X4, about 200 metres from where he is. Despite being in their ancestors territory they are not allowed to enter Repsol installations. Don C√©sar Aguilar, a guarani indian who works for the CERDET NGO that supports the guarani struggle for their rights concerning the explotaition of their territory by gas companies such as Repsol. C√©sar looks from the top of a mountain range over the Itika Guasu territory, very rich in gas. There is a Repsol gas well, Campo Margarita X4, about 200 metres from where he is. Despite being in their ancestors territory they are not allowed to enter Repsol installations.

Itika Guasu territory / Palos Blancos, Tarija, Bolivie - 02/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081013

Street scene of Camiri at night. Camiri is one of main points in the gas map of Bolivia since some decades. Near this little town there are many gas wells and gas factories from different companies such as Repsol, El Chaco, British Gas and others.

Camiri, Santa Cruz, Bolivie - 08/09/2006

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Héctor Mediavilla / Picturetank MEH0081146

A litlle dog watches a kerosene pump in El Tejar neighbourhood. There are many kerose pumps like this one in La Paz to serve domestic use for cocking. Lately there are shortages in the supply of kerosene and GLP so most of the days there is no kerosene for many families to cook.

La Paz, La Paz, Bolivie - 19/09/2006

Only for distribution in France and Belgium.



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